Mirjam Fried

Mirjam Fried, Ph.D.

position: adjunct professor at Charles University

research foci: cognitive and functional aspects of language description and analysis (synchronic & diachronic), Construction Grammar, Frame Semantics

e-mail: fried[at]ff.cuni.cz


Empirical Perspectives on Communication and Cognition (EPoCC research group)

Czech Association for Language and Cognition (President)

office hours: WE 16.00-17.00 P419b; after prior appointment via e-mail

ORCID: 0000-0002-8157-6858

SCOPUS id: 24288383900

Research interests, things I do

I’m interested in the cognitive and functional aspects of language description and analysis, synchronic or diachronic, particularly in morphology and morphosyntax (case marking alternations, subordination, word order, categoriality, relationship between lexical meaning and grammatical patterning, role of pragmatics in grammar). My language interests include Czech (Old and Modern, and Slavic material in general), Kannada, Turkish, and Lithuanian. The theoretical frameworks close to my heart are Construction Grammar and Frame Semantics; quite a bit of my work is concerned with specific analytic and representational issues within these models, especially as they relate to questions of variability and change in grammatical structure, also through the lens of the grammaticalization theory. I’m also intrigued by the possibilities offered by large electronic corpora as sources of authentic (especially conversational) data, and I use them as much as they’re available.

Full CV (pdf)


  • Principal investigator, European structural grant CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000734, Creativity and adaptability as conditions for the success of Europe in an interrelated world (2018-2022).
  • Principal investigator, grant GAČR P406/11/2021, Nature of linguistic categorization through the study of categorial hybrids: diachronic evidence (2011-2013).
  • Advisory member of the research project Meaning and Its Cognitive and Neural Correlates, sponsored by The Nordic Organization for Coordinating Research in the Humanities. PI: Mila Vulchanova-Dimitrova, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim. 2001-2002.
  • International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley, CA. Member of the research team on the FrameNetproject. PI: Charles J. Fillmore. 2000-2001.
  • The Czech Linguistics Institute, Prague. Research Fellow, Historical Lexicology Project. PI: Igor Němec. 1981-1982.
  • Charles University, Prague. Research Assistant in the computational linguistics group led by Dr. Petr Sgall, lexical and syntactic analysis of Czech verbs for an English-Czech machine translation project. 1978-1980.



2015. Kontextové faktory ve vývoji gramatických kategorií [Contextual factors in the development of grammatical categories]. Praha: Vydavatelství FF UK.

Edited volumes:

In prep. Fried, M. & E. Lehečková (eds.). Creativity and adaptation in language and communication. Special issue of Linguistica Pragensia.

In prep. Fried, M. & K. Nikiforidou (eds.). The Cambridge handbook of Construction Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

In prep. Nikiforidou, K., Fried, M., Zima, E., & Bergs, A. (eds.). Multimodal communication from a Construction Grammar perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2010. M. Fried, J-O. Östman, & J. Verschueren (eds.), Variation and change: pragmatic perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins

2005. M. Fried & Hans C. Boas (eds.), Grammatical constructions: back to the roots. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2005. J-O. Östman & M. Fried (eds.), Construction Grammars: cognitive grounding and theoretical extensions. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2004. M. Fried & J-O. Östman (eds.), Construction Grammar in a cross-language perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Conference proceedings:

2008. F. Štícha & M. Fried (eds.), Grammar and Corpora II. Praha: Academia.

Journal articles:

2022. Fried, M. & Machač, P. Intonation as a cue to epistemic stance in one type of insubordinate clauses. Folia Linguistica 56(1), 183-214.

2021. P. Machač & M. Fried.  Fonetické redukce a vyjadřování jistotních postojů v insubordinačních strukturách [Phonetic reductions and epistemic marking in insubordination structures]. Časopis pro moderní filologii 103(1), 7-35.

2021. Discourse-referential patterns as a network of grammatical constructions. In: R. Enghels & M. S. Sansiñena (eds.), Constructional approach(es) to discourse-level phenomena: theoretical and methodological challenges. Special issue of Constructions and Frames, 13 (1), 21-35. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/cf.00046.fri.

2020. M. Fried & K. Lipská. Relativizační strategie v češtině: konstrukčně-gramatický přístup. Naše řeč 103(1-2), 37-54. [PDF]

2018. Jazyková změna jako výsledek užívání jazyka. Studies in Applied Linguistics – Special Issue, 5-10.

2017. Construction Grammar in the service of Slavic linguistics, and vice versa. Journal of Slavic Linguistics 25(2), 241–276.

2013. Pojem konstrukce v konstrukční gramatice. Časopis pro moderní filologii 95, č. 1, 9-27.

2010. Constructions and frames as interpretive clues. Belgian Journal of Linguistics, Vol. 24, Frames: from grammar to application, ed. by P. Sambre and C. Wermuth, 83-102. [PDF]

2010. Grammar and interaction: new directions in constructional research. Constructions and Frames 2(2), 125-133.

2010. Accusative resumptive pronouns in the Czech relative clauses with absolutive relativizer coKorpus, gramatika, axiologie 1(1), 16-29. [PDF]

2009. Construction Grammar as a tool for diachronic analysis. Constructions and Frames 1(2): 261-290. [PDF]

2007. Constructing grammatical meaning: isomorphism and polysemy in Czech reflexivization. Studies in Language 31(4): 721-764. [PDF]

2005, A frame-based approach to case alternations: the swarm-class verbs in Czech. Cognitive Linguistics 16/3:475-512. [PDF]

2005. Construction Grammar and spoken language: the case of pragmatic particles. Journal of Pragmatics 37(11): 1752-1778. (Fried & Östman)

2004, Czech reflexivization and the invariance principle revisited. Slavic and East European Journal 48.4: 627-653.

1999, Inherent vs. derived clisis: evidence from Czech proclitics. Journal of Linguistics 35: 43-64.

1994, Second-position clitics in Czech: syntactic or phonological? Lingua 94: 155-175.

1993, Complex present participles in Old Czech. Listy filologické CXVI: 37-52.

Articles in edited volumes:

In prep. P. Machač & M. Fried. Utterance comprehension in spontaneous speech: phonetic reductions and syntactic context.

2019. Interakční dativ v konverzační češtině [Interactional dative in conversational Czech]. In J. Hoffmannová et al. (eds.), Syntax mluvené češtiny [Syntax of spoken Czech], pp. 218-243. Praha: Academia.

2015. Irregular morphology in regular syntactic patterns: a case of constructional re-alignment. In J. Barðdal, S. Gildea, E. Smirnova & L. Sommerer (eds.), Diachronic Construction Grammar, pp. 141-174. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2014. From semantic to interactional dative: a preliminary investigation. In M. Martinková, M. Janebová, & J. Macháček (eds.), Categories and Categorial Changes: The Third Syntactical Plan and Beyond, pp. 12-20.

2012. Nebyl věřící jako věřící: drobná sonda do jedné transpoziční kategorie ve staré češtině. In P. Nejedlý and M. vajdlová (eds.), Cesta slov, 63-74. Praha: Ústav pro jazyk český.

2011. The notion of affectedness in expressing interpersonal functions. In M. Grygiel & L.A. Janda (eds.), Slavic linguistics in a cognitive framework, 121-143. Frankfurt am Mein: Peter Lang. [draft PDF]

2011. Vztažné věty s nesklonným co. In F. Štícha (ed.), Kapitoly z české gramatiky, 1126-1143. Praha: Academia.

2010. Grammaticalization and lexicalization effects in participial morphology: a Construction Grammar approach to language change. In A. Van linden, J-Ch. Verstraete, & K. Davidse (eds.), in collaboration with H. Cuyckens, Formal evidence in grammaticalization research [Typological studies in language], 191-224. John Benjamins. [PDF]

2010. Introduction: from instances of change to explanations of change. In M. Fried, J-O. Östman, & J. Verschueren (eds.), Variation and change: pragmatic perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2010. Ke zrodu české modální částice jestli. In M. Radovanović & J. Grković-Major (eds.), The theory of diachronic linguistics and investigations into the Serbian language, 223-238. Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.

2010. A Construction Grammar approach to grammatical change. In Hansen, Björn & Jasmina Grković-Major (eds.). Diachronic Slavonic SyntaxGradual Changes in Focus. Wiener Slawistischer Almanach (Sonderband 74), 53-62. München – Berlin – Wien.

2009. Representing contextual factors in language change: between frames and constructions. In A. Bergs & G. Diewald (eds.), Context and constructions, 63-94. John Benjamins. [PDF]

2009. Plain vs. situated possession in a network of grammatical constructions. In W. McGregor (ed.), Expression of possession, 213-248. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. [PDF]

2008. Guessing at the truth: Czech jestli as a modal particle. In C. Cravens, M. U. Fidler, & S. C. Kresin (eds.), Between tests, languages, and cultures. A festschrift for Michael Henry Heim, 137-146. Bloomington, IN: Slavica Publishers.

2008. Constructions and constructs: mapping a shift between predication and attribution. In A. Bergs & G. Diewald (eds.), Constructions and language change, 47-79. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. [PDF]

2007. A Frame Semantic account of morphosemantic change: the case of Old Czech věřící. In D. Divjak & A. Kochanska (eds.), Cognitive Paths into the Slavic Domain, 283-315. Mouton de Gruyter.

2006. Agent back-grounding as a functional domain: reflexivization and passivization in Czech and Russian. In T. Solstad & B. Lyngfelt (eds.), Demoting the agent: passive, middle and other voice phenomena [Linguistics today 96], 83-109. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. [PDF]

2005. The stability of meaning-form associations across time. In P. Nejedlý & M. Vajdlová (eds.), Verba et historia, 77-86. Praha.

2005. Introduction. In M Fried & H. Boas (eds.), Grammatical constructions: back to the roots, 1-9. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (Boas & Fried)

2005. The cognitive grounding of Construction Grammar. (Östman & Fried) In J-O. Östman & M. Fried (eds.), Construction Grammars: Cognitive grounding and theoretical extensions, 1-13. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2004. Predicate semantics and event construal in Czech case marking. In M. Fried & J-O. Östman (eds.), Construction Grammar in a cross-language perspective, 87-120. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2004. Construction Grammar: a thumbnail sketch. (Fried & Östman) In M. Fried & J-O. Östman (eds.), Construction Grammar in a cross-language perspective, 11-86. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2004. Historical and intellectual background of Construction Grammar. (Östman & Fried) In M. Fried & J-O. Östman (eds.), Construction Grammar in a cross-language perspective, 1-10.Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

2003. Dimensions of syntactic change: evidence from the long –nt– participle in Old Czech texts. In R.A. Maguire & A. Timberlake (eds.), The American Contributions to the Thirteenth International Congress of Slavists, 79-92.

1999. From interest to ownership: a constructional view of external possessors. In D.L. Payne & I. Barshi (eds.), External Possession Constructions, 473-504. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

1999. The ‘free’ datives in Czech as a linking problem. In K. Dziwirek, H. Coats, and C. Vakareliyska (eds.), Formal Approaches to Slavic Linguistics 7: 145-166. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications.

1999. Responses to the linguistics papers presented at NAATC –Varieties of Czech. Modern Czech Studies, Brown Slavic Contributions Vol. XI, 48-53. Brown University.

Encyclopedic entries:

2015. Construction Grammar. In A. Alexiadou & T. Kiss (eds.), Syntax – Theory and Analysis. An International Handbook. Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science. 42.1-3 (974-1003). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. [PDF]  DOI 10.13140/RG.2.1.1860.7447

2013. Principles of constructional change. In Th. Hoffmann & G. Trousdale (eds.), The Oxford handbook of Construction Grammar. Oxford University Press. [PDF]

2003. Word order. In Handbook of Pragmatics, 1-13. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.


2012. “Construction Grammar.” In Oxford Bibliographies Online: Linguistics. Ed. Mark Aronoff. New York: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/.

Articles in conference proceedings:

2011. Grammatical analysis and corpus evidence. In M. Konopka, J. Kubczak, Ch. Mair, F. Štícha, & U.H. Waßner (eds.), Grammar and Corpora 3, 63-86. Mannheim: Narr Verlag. [PDF]

2008. Dative possessor: delimiting a grammatical category based on usage. In F. Štícha & M. Fried (eds.), Grammar and Corpora II, 51-63. Praha: Academia.

2007. The polyfunctional structure of jestli in spoken Czech. In F. Štícha & J. Šimandl (eds.), Grammar and Corpora I, 57-67. Praha: ÚJČ AV ČR.

2004. The semantics and pragmatics of agent demotion vs. ‘passive’. In T. Solstad, B. Lyngfelt & M.F. Krave (eds.), Pre-proceedings of Demoting the agent: passive and other voice-related phenomena, 31-39. Oslo: University of Oslo.

1999. Kannada gerund in adnominal positions: a functional perspective. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society. 12 pp.

1994. Grammatical functions in case languages: subjecthood in Czech. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society: 184-193.

1993. The role of argument structure in Turkish causativization. Proceedings of Western Conference on Linguistics 93, Volume 6: 136-148.

1992. What’s in a causative: the semantics of Kannada –isuProceedings of the Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. 12 pp.

1990. Reflexives as grammatical constructions: a case study in Czech. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistic Society: 127-139.


2006. Čeština – univerzália a specifika 5 (Z. Hladká & P. Karlík, eds.). In Slavic and East European Journal 50.2: 392-394.

Representative conference presentations (recent):

2021. Utterance comprehension in spontaneous speech: phonetic reductions and syntactic context. 54th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europea, panel on Constructional analysis in multimodal perspective. Athens, Greece (with P. Machač)

2021. Bringing the speech into spoken language: integrating phonetics in grammatical descriptions. Eleventh International Conference on Construction Grammar (ICCG11), Antwerp. (with P. Machač)

2021. The role of phonetic word reductions in epistemic-stance-marking insubordination. 17th Slavic Cognitive Linguistics Conference (SCLC-17), Tromsø. (with P. Machač)

2019. Na pomezí syntaxe a zvuku ve spontánní řeči: předběžná zjištění. 1st Conference of the Czech Association for Language & Cognition, Prague, Czechia. (with P. Machač)

2019. Between syntax and sound in conversational language: preliminary observations. Slavic Cognitive Linguistics Association conference. Boston, MA. (with P. Machač)

2019. Intonational patterns as interpretive clues in spontaneous interaction. Fifteenth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference (ICLC15). Nishinomiya, Japan. (with P. Machač)

2018. Integration of discourse-referential categories in constructional networks. CogLingDays8, Université catholique de Louvain.

2017. Erosion of the main clause in insubordination patterns.15th Slavic Cognitive Linguistics Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia.

2014. Speaker-centered interactional datives in Czech. Slavic Cognitive Linguistics Association conference. Boston, USA.

2013. Interactional datives and the speaker-hearer relations. 13th International Pragmatics Association Conference. New Delhi, India.

2012. Integrating interactional factors in grammatical structure. 5th International Conference on LanguageCulture, and Mind (LCM V). Lisbon, Portugal.

2011. Contextual grounding of grammatical change: an argument for constructionalization. 44th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europea, panel on Diachronic Construction Grammar. Logroño, Spain.

2009. From participles to actor nouns in Old Czech. AAASS, panel on Slavic Diachronic Morphosyntax. Boston, MA.

2009. The emergence of an epistemic contextualizer in conversational Czech. 42nd Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea. Panel: Grammatical and Lexical Modality at Work. Lisbon, Portugal.

2009. Reported speech without verbs of reporting in colloquial Czech. 11th International Pragmatics Association Conference. Melbourne.

Invited plenary lectures at international conferences and workshops

2017. Inside ’transposition’ morphology: a constructional view. Plenary lecture at 11th Mediterranean Morphology Meeting. Nicosia, Cyprus. June 22-25, 2017.

2015. Evidentiality, mirativity, and epistemicity in speaker-centered interactional datives. Plenary talk at the Thirteenth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference (ICLC13), Newcastle, Great Britain.

2014. Free-standing subordinate clauses: what do they tell us about constructionalization? Plenary talk at Eighth International Conference on Construction Grammar (ICCG8), Ösnabrück, Germany.

2013. Place of irregular morphology in a regular categorial development. Plenary lecture at the workshop Diachronic Slavonic Syntax: Language contact vs. internal factors. Novi Sad, Serbia.

2013. Working out ‘mistakes’ in grammatical patterning: feature-based reorganization of constructions. Invited lecture at the International summerschool on music and the origins of language. Palazzone di Cortona, Italy.

2013. Prostupnost propozičních a pragmatických významů: konstrukční přístup ke kategoriálním změnám. Plenary lecture at the conference Lingvistika Praha.

2012. Context-sensitive reorganization of grammatical patterning. Plenary lecture at the conference of the Belgium/Netherlands Cognitive Linguistics Association (BeNeCla). December 14-15, Groningen, Netherlands.

2012. Constructional variation: the case of Czech relative clauses. Plenary lecture at the conference of the Slavic Cognitive Linguistics Association (SCLA). Zagreb, Croatia.

2012. Constructionalization: a way to conceptualize grammatical change? Seveth International Conference on Construction Grammar (ICCG 7). Seoul, Soth Korea.

2011. The role of constructions in modeling grammatical change. 11th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference. Xi’an, China.

2011. Relative clauses in Slavic. Conference The Russian language: constructional and lexico-semantic approaches. St. Petersburg, Russia.

2010. Between verb semantics and interpersonal meanings in participant realization: a constructional account of ‘ethical’ datives. Keynote lecture. International workshop on Variation and Change in Argument Realization. Naples/Capri, Italy.

2010. Constructional Syntax: basic assumptions, methods, and motivation. Plenary lecture. Syntax in Cognitive Grammar. Czestochowa, Poland.

2010. Contextual grounding of syntactic structure: a CxG approach to language change. Pleanry lecture. Syntax in Cognitive Grammar. Czestochowa, Poland.

2009. Grammatical analysis and corpus evidence. Keynote lecture. Grammar and Corpora III. 3rd International Conference. Mannheim, Germany.

2009. Gradualness of linguistic change: can Construction Grammar meet the challenge? Plenary talk. Frames and constructions: a conference in honor of Charles J. Fillmore. Berkeley, CA.

2009. Constructions and frames as interpretive clues.” Keynote lecture. Framing: from grammar to application (conference of the Linguistic Society of Belgium), Lessius Antwerp, Belgium.

2008. A Construction Grammar approach to grammatical change. Plenary lecture, International workshop Diachronic syntax in Slavonic languages: gradual changes in focus. Regensburg, Germany.

2007. Possession: delimiting a grammatical category in a usage-based analysis. Plenary lecture, Grammar and Corpora II. Prague, Czech Republic.

2006. The emergence of jestli as a modal particle in spoken Czech: a Construction Grammar account. Keynote lecture, Perspectives on Slavistics II. Regensburg, Germany.

2006. Language variation and change in Construction Grammar. Plenary lecture, 2nd Scandinavian Dialect Syntax Meeting. Solf, Finland.

2004. Constructional maps and the representation of grammatical meaning. Plenary lecture, 3rd International Conference in Construction Grammar. Marseille, France.

2004. The stability of meaning-form associations across time. Plenary lecture, Verba et historia. Prague, Czech Republic.

2002. Issues in representing flexible word order: beyond discourse structure. Plenary lecture, 2nd International Conference on Construction Grammar. Helsinki, Finland.

Other invited presentations, academic talks, lecture series:

2017. A construction grammar approach to conversational language. Lecture series at summer school of the Netherlands Graduate School in Linguistics (LOT). Leiden University. July 3-7, 2017.

2017. Two lectures on corpus-based analysis of interactional Czech. Freiburg University.

2012. Two lectures at the workshop Applying Construction Grammar in (historical) linguistics. Bergen, Norway.

2012. Intensive course on Construction Grammar. Tartu, Estonia.

2012. Language as an exercise in creative recycling. Lecture at the University of Athens, Greece.

2011. Issues in argument structure. Workshop The Future of Linguistics, organized by Luc Steels. Barcelona, Spain.

2010. Introduction to Construction Grammar.” Series of lectures at the Summer School of Linguistics, Salos, Lithuania.

2009. Series of lectures on Construction Grammar. University of Regensburg.

2008. Constructions and frames: the division of labor in capturing variation and change. FRIAS workshop, Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, Freiburg.

2008. Construction Grammar. Lecture for a PhD course on Constructions, discourse, and cognition. University of Helsinki, Finland.

2008. Frames and constructions. Lecture for a PhD course on Constructions, discourse, and cognition. University of Helsinki, Finland.

2007. Dialogical discourse in the hands of a construction grammarian. International workshop on Construction Grammar and Interactional Linguistics. University of Helsinki, Finland.

2006. Pragmatic particles in Construction Grammar. Workshop on Pragmatic Particles, organized by the Nordic Center of Excellence on Micro-comparative Syntax. University of Helsinki, Finland.

2001. A constructional analysis of the verb-adjective-noun continuum. Guest lecture in the Dept. of English, University of Helsinki, Finland.

2001. Representing word order in ‘disorderly’ languages: issues for Construction Grammar. Guest lecture in the Linguistics Department, University of Helsinki, Finland.

2001. Pragmatics and grammar: discourse datives in Czech. Guest lecture at Max Planck Institute, Leipzig, Germany.

1999. Nominalization in Kannada as a discourse-structuring strategy. Featured speaker, Workshop on Analyzing Spoken Language. University of Helsinki, Finland.

Úvod > Mirjam Fried